BLOOD PRESSURE- Types, Symptoms & Causes

The pressure at which the blood circulates in our blood vessels is called Blood Pressure. This Pressure is due to the functioning of the heart i.e. pumping blood. Blood pressure fluctuates all through the day. It is usually lowest during night hours and highest when you wake up. Blood pressure is commonly measured in millimeters of mercury denoted as mmHg.

BLOOD PRESSURE-Types-Symptoms-Causes
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Blood pressure along with pulse rate, body temperature, etc is one the important functions which indicate healthy living of a human being.

Blood pressure is bifurcated and measured into two following parts:

1.Maximum Pressure during one heartbeat known as Systolic pressure
2.Minimum Pressure between two heartbeats known as diastolic pressure

Normally blood pressure of a healthy adult is approximately 120mmHg systolic and 80mmHg diastolic. Symbolically, it is represented as 120/80mmHg.

Based on the above standards, there are two types of situations:

  • Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension): Blood pressure that falls below the standards is defined in medical terms as Hypotension
  • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Blood pressure that falls above the standards is defined in medical terms as Hypertension.
  • Usually, High BP is quite common in comparison to Low BP.

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension):-

Many people fail to understand their medical state of High BP or Hypertension until it becomes severe. It is advised to consult a doctor for regular check up to avoid severe situations coming from long term hypertension.

Various Causes of High Blood Pressure:

  • Genetic: Hypertension is genetic and can pass into generations.
  • Excessive salt: If the diet includes a high quantity of sodium or salt it causes the body to retain fluids causing a situation of high blood pressure.
  • Low Level of potassium: Potassium balances the quantity of sodium in the body. If the diet contains less potassium due to which sodium increases, it gives rise to high blood pressure.
  • Alcohol: Over time, excessive drinking can cause damage to the heart. It is probably one of the causes of hypertension.
  • Stress: If you are in a situation which is stressful it may temporarily lead to rising in blood pressure. Reducing stress and trying to relax by taking alcohol or chewing tobacco, mind it, it only increases your level of blood pressure.
  • Overweight or obese: Body weight is directly proportionate to blood pressure. More weight means your body wants more supply of necessary nutrients due to which blood circulation increases and hence cause an increase in blood pressure.
  • Laziness: People who stay lazy all the time or who are not much physically active have a high pulse rate.
  • Age: The risk of blood pressure being high increases with age.

Various symptoms of high blood pressure are:

  • Extreme headaches.
  • Irregular pulse or heartbeat
  • Difficulty in breathing

A continuous situation of High BP is the very risky and root cause for numerous complications like:

  • Cardiac diseases: High blood pressure may lead to various heart diseases like attack, stroke or heart failure.
  • Kidney Issues: Due to high blood pressure various organs malfunction Eg: kidney.
    Memory Issues: hypertension can cause an impact on brain activities of thinking and learning. Memory and concentration issues are common.


Usually, low blood pressure doesn’t cause any problem and for some, it might seem desirable but abnormally low body pressure also called hypotension may cause severe issues which in certain cases can also be life-threatening.

There are various causes of low blood pressure to list a few:

  • Cardiac Issues: Few heart conditions may lead to the Situation of hypotension like extremely low Pulse rate (brad cardiac), valve issues, heart attack, and failure.
  • Blood loss: Sometimes due to some major Injury or bleeding, the amount of blood in the body reduces, leading to low blood pressure.
  • Lack of essential nutrients in diet: Lack of certain vitamins like folate and B-12 may prevent the body from producing sufficient red blood cells, causing low blood pressure.
  • Severe infection: Infection in your body may cause a life-threatening drop in blood pressure also called septic shock.
  • Dehydration: vomiting, severe diarrhea, Fever may lead to loss of excessive water causing dehydration.
  • Medications: certain medicines or drugs may also lead to low blood pressure.

Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure:

  • Fainting
  • Feeling of vomiting
  • Tiredness
  • Concentration Issues
  • Eyesight Issues
  • Dizziness

Types of low blood pressure:

According to doctors, Low blood pressure can be categorized into two parts:

  • Low BP (Hypotension) on standing up: In this case, there is a sudden drop in blood pressure when you stand up from a sitting position.
  • Low BP (Hypotension) after eating: In this case, there is a drop of blood pressure after you eat.

Doctors usually suggest certain home remedies to control blood pressure which include the following:

  1. Taking a healthy diet
  2. Less intake of salt
  3. Regular exercise or physical activity.
  4. Limit on the intake of alcohol.
  5. Meditation or yoga.
  6. Avoiding Drugs and tobacco.
  7. Avoiding Stressful situation.

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